The Hydrology of 2017’s Hurricanes

Recently the North American Continent and Caribbean Islands was ravaged by a series of violent hurricanes. The hurricanes that hit the U.S. typically start off as severe storms on the west coast of Africa. As the storm hits the ocean, it will gather strength by feeding off the warmth and moisture of the ocean. Then, thanks to the Coriolis Effect, it gains rotation.

The Coriolis Effect is a phenomenon that causes fluids and air to curve over the earth’s surface. This occurs because the earth is rotating on its axis from west to east and it spins faster where the sphere bulges, the equator. As the hurricane spins an area of high pressure is created up top and low pressure on the bottom. The whole thing rotates around the eye of the storm.

Continue reading


My Life Partner

By Damien Knight

I took a long time to realize what defined the perfect love. I picked many wrong people to love in the past. I thought love was defined on looks or who was popular. I thought those who were the right ones for me would be “strong enough” to control me, that I must date the bad guy to be cool. I was wrong.

I learned through trial and error what defined the perfect life partner. In fact, I know now I have that perfect life partner, my loving husband. Aaron is strong in character. He is open-minded and yet firm when defending those against wrongs. He is a good parent and a loving husband.

Continue reading

Profiles in Courage

By Damien Knight

President John F. Kennedy was elected president in November 8 1960 against the then Vice President, Richard Nixon. Kennedy was the first Catholic and the youngest presidential candidate in history. At the time of his bid for presidency “anti-Catholicism was alive and well”, (Champion, Owen F) and for many Americans there was serious concern over having a Catholic president. He overcame this with his charisma during televised debates and beat Nixon in a landslide and on January 20th 1961. It was during his inaugural address he told Americans those famous words “Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country.” (The 6th Street Museum, Dallas)

President Kennedy was poised to begin his “New Frontier” policies. On March 1 1961 he formed the Peace Corps fulfilling for Americans a way for them to “do for their country,” and the world. He was a cultured president who held art viewings and socialites in the white house. He was also human and prone to err like the rest of us. During April 17 1961 the bay of pig invasion was launched. A thousand exiled Cubans attacked Cuba in a failed bid to overthrow Dictator Fidel Castro. (JFK Assassination Timeline) Kennedy bravely and publicly accepted the failure. In response to this disaster Kennedy created The Situation Room to filter military intelligence he would receive. This showed he was willing to act on his failing. Soon after Kennedy authorizes 400 U.S. Soldiers to go to Vietnam.

Continue reading

Cyrus The Great: Document Analysis Freeing of the Jews

Written By Damien Knight

When King Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon around 538 BCE, he wrote a decree that is often described as the first decree of human rights. The document describes the release of captives of Babylon and returning of them to their homeland. The second part of the reading is a document written by the Jews on their perspective of gaining freedom and the benevolence of the Persian king.

Continue reading

Red Foxes- An Essay

By Cera Knapp


Author Photo

Red foxes are really cute. They live all around the world in many different habitats. In some places humans can adopt these amazing creatures. Foxes eat small creatures and can eat fruit.

A fox uses its tail for balance, but it also has other uses. They can use their tails as coats to keep warm in cold weather. They also use them to communicate with other foxes.

Foxes meet in the winter to mate. The female, called a vixen, gives birth to 2 to 12 pups a litter. At birth red fox pups are brown or grey. Both parents look after the young until they are old enough to go out in the world.



Cera drew a fox.



Philosophy: What is Real

By:  Damien Knight

How do you know what is real and what is not? Specifically, how do you know that dreams are only dreams and that there are no such things as ghosts? In answering these questions, draw upon and demonstrate some understanding of the views of George Berkeley and Rene’ Descartes

What Is Real?

What is real and how do we know this world is not a dream after all? I shall start with a story much like our book does. When I was a child I feared ghosts I could see things others did not and it frightened me. Unlike the tale in the book instead of my father or siblings saying they were not real they told me that I could tell the ghosts to leave. To this day I believe in the reality of ghosts but that reality is apart from mine.

So if spirits are real and I can tell them to leave me alone what does this mean about reality? Is it fragmented into multiple planes? How can I be certain that where I am is the true reality? To be honest, I have come to the determination that there is no true reality that all of my experiences as a whole are all real. That both the world I dream in and the world I wake in is real. To explain this, I have to tell another story which will explain my view.

When I was a child I lived with my Abuelito. He was a very kind old Mexican man who did not speak English and he use to tell us stories of life. One day Abuelito sat us all down and told us this piece of wisdom:

“When we dream we do not just see visions dancing in our heads, we travel the world with our spirit. Sometimes we even travel to another world a place that is wonderful and filled with magic. You can do anything there. This place is as real as here, you can feel pain and loss and love. Learn to travel in your dreams and you will live fully.”

I have since learned to harness the power of my dreams and have indeed both felt love and loss and pain there just as I do here. So what is reality than if for me it is not just material. If reality is not the matter in front of me as some have claimed than reality must be more. For materialists like Thomas Hobbes reality comprised the items we saw, the physical objects that took up space and had mass. Dreams by themselves do not have mass but when I am dreaming the objects in the dream do take up space in the world of that dream. I can touch and feel the sword I carry. I feel the weight of the armor I wear and the drink I drink appears to have volume and mass. If the dream appears just as real as when I wake up what makes this reality superior?

What if than reality is just in the mind after all? I fall asleep in my dream world and awake in this one and in both worlds they both are real because reality is dependent on my consciousness and I effect it with my thought.

George Berkeley put the idea that reality is perception. Nothing exists unless it is being perceived. So what we experience is reality as we experience it. This is a part of how I view reality. Everything we see, touch, hear, and think is real at that moment whether it is the voice of a spirit speaking to me or the kiss of a lover who is only in the world of my dreams. As I perceive them they are all real.

With Berkeley he states that when things are no perceived that it ceases to exist unless we believe that there is a supreme mind conceiving all. Perhaps there is no need for a mind to consistently conceive all. Perhaps because there are so many consciousness’ that all exists because when one mind stops perceiving another starts.

René Descartes tears down existence entirely by realizing that everything he sees could perhaps not be real at all that it all is in his mind. The entire world is perceived by our senses and if perchance our senses are wrong than what have we left but the mind itself. In this way at least we are our reality. To accept that reality is not just what has mass and takes up space we accept that we have both a mind and body. Descartes noticed that we could conceive of ourselves existing without a body and so we are not the body leaving the mind to conceive and perceive all which is real.

Even though I am a scientist who prefers to deal with mass and measurement to answer questions reality cannot be answered in that way. Reality is complex, and the mind is obviously more than the processes of biology. In the end how do we know what is real, the answer is we never will know but for me all that is in my mind is real.